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It became the capital and most important city in the Spanish Viceroyalty of Peru.
Following the Peruvian War of Independence, it became the capital of the Republic of Peru.
During this period the urban layout was modified by the construction of broad avenues that crisscrossed the city and connected it with neighboring towns.
The city slopes gently from the shores of the Pacific Ocean into valleys and mountain slopes located as high as 1,550 meters (5,090 ft) above sea level.According to early Spanish articles the Lima area was once called Itchyma, after its original inhabitants.However, even before the Inca occupation of the area in the 15th century, a famous oracle in the Rímac valley had come to be known by visitors as Limaq (Limaq, pronounced , which means "talker" or "speaker" in the coastal Quechua that was the area's primary language before the Spanish arrival).The anthem was created by Luis Enrique Tord (lyrics), Euding Maeshiro (music) and record producer Ricardo Núñez (arranger).A combined expedition of Argentine and Chilean patriots under General José de San Martín landed south of Lima in 1820 but did not attack the city.